Arrival of Mughals: Babur and Humayun ?


Central Asia and India

The century was a century of great changes in the region and India, the Ottoman general, which revived in the middle of the fifteenth century and reached its peak in the middle of the sixteenth century. Based in Syria and Anatolia, the Ottomans took Central Europe and tried to bring Iraq and Iran under their control. In Iran, the Shia-backed Saudi Empire arrived in Sanaa in the last quarter of the fifteenth century. He also negotiated with the Ottoman emperors for control over Iraq and Baghdad and he also tried to spread Shi’ism in the Ottoman areas.

After the dissolution of the Mongol Empire in the 15th century, Timur reunited Iran and Turan under a single rule. The territory of Afghanistan and a part of Punjab was included. Timur died in 1405 but his grandson Shahrukh Mirza (died 1448) was successful in retaining a part of his empire. He encouraged art and literature, and during his time Samsakad and Herat became the cultural centers of West Asia. The ruler of Samarkand had great interest in the whole Islamic world.

In the second half of the 15th century, the Timuris’ custom of dividing the empire to a large extent reduced their power rapidly. The different Timurid kingdoms that were now born were always fighting with each other. Due to this, two new elements got the opportunity to emerge. A Turkic-Mongol tribe of Uzbeks from the north entered the region of Havas-par. The Uzbeks had become Muslims, but Timuris considered them inferior because they considered them uncultured and barbaric. And in the west, a new dynasty named Safavi began to dominate Iran. The Safavi Sultans were the descendants of a line of Sufis who considered the Prophet as their ancestor. He supported the Shia sect of Muslims and called those people

Produced the passionate were not ready to adopt. On the other hand, Umaid Muli made a difference in the politics of these two.

In the sixteenth century, three mighty empires in Asia, and the land had been prepared. The preparation of the Ganges was being done in India, due to which the empire came to a standstill. The basis for this was the re-unification of the Shako kingdom into the upper Gangetic basin of the Sodis. But the Sodis as well as the tribals had their own polity within. If a solution to this problem could be found, whether it was in his own effort or by external intervention, the way would have been paved for the establishment of a new empire in North India. The rise of Timur and the arrival of Babur should be seen in this context.


In 1494, at the young age of 12, Babur Banudak, the king of Fargana, a small kingdom in Oxus-Par, was busy fighting with each other with his eyes closed to danger. Babur also tried to snatch Samarkand from his uncle. He won this city twice but research lost him on both the occasions. For the second time, the Uttek Sardar Shaivani Khan was called to assist in ousting Babur. Shaivani Khan defeated Babur and conquered Samarkand. Soon he also trampled the rest of the Timurid kingdoms in the region. Babur proceeded towards Kabul, which he conquered in 1504. For the next 14 years, Babur was waiting for an opportunity to win back his wealth from the Uzbeks. He tried to get help in this work from his uncle, the ruler of Herat, but to no avail. Therefore, Shaivani Khan trampled Herat as well, this led to a fierce confrontation between the Ulaks and the Safravis as the rulers were claimants to Meerat and the surrounding areas, which are called Khughan by contemporary writers. In 1510, Ismail Na Khan of Iran was defeated and killed in a famous battle near Parv. Babur now made another attempt to leave Samarkand and this time with the help of Iranian forces, he was placed on the throne in Samarkand, but he started doing it under the control of Iranian warlords, which made Babur an Iranian subedar instead of an independent ruler. wanted to keep it the same. Meanwhile the Uzbeks increasingly

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Ashok Kumar Gupta
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