Meaning and Definitions of Authority-
In order to perform managerial functions, the manager needs authority because on the basis of this, he gives necessary orders to his subordinates to execute the work. Right means specific rights, power or permission i.e. the right to act for the undertaking, the right to speak on behalf of the undertaking, the right to order subordinates to get the work done, to punish for wrongdoings. Right, the right to use the property of the undertaking or the right to represent the undertaking, etc. These powers are vested with the head of the enterprise, to whom it confers on subordinate managers to achieve the goals set by the enterprise. As a result, a manager gets these rights from the head of the undertaking. If he does not have authority, he is not a manager at all. Therefore right means any person
It is derived from the legal power on the basis of which it gives orders to the subordinates regarding the execution of work and takes work from them. Franklin G. According to Moore (Franklin G. Moore), “Right is the authority to decide and power compels decisions to be followed.”
According to Koontz and O’Donnel, “Right is the power to order others to do or not to act according to the instructions of the authority to achieve the goals of the undertaking or department. According to George R. Terry, “Power is the power that gives power to other people.”
Forces to perform actions deemed fit for the attainment of predetermined objectives
Thus authority is the power to give orders to others. It is an order to do or not to act according to the instructions of the recipient of power to achieve the goals of the undertaking or department.
Characteristics or Elements of Authority
Following are the main features or elements of authority
(1) The exercise of legal power implies the existence of legal power under the right. Right without power has no significance. It is also to be remembered in this regard that managers should not abuse their authority. The subordinates should only have an estimation of power, then they will automatically follow orders. fear of abuse of power
Environment can be created and industrial relations can deteriorate. (2) The second notable feature of the performance right as a result of the power is that
It involves the execution of orders as a result of power.
(3) Influential Personality The personal personality of the manager should also be very influential in the undertaking. Voluntary cooperation of subordinates can be obtained only if they are influenced by the personality of their officer. Therefore, along with the rights, the manager should develop his personality and provide efficient leadership.
(4) Expectations, authority, authority to work or delegate to subordinates and satisfy them have the right to be expected to perform.
(5) Source rights The legal source of power lies in the ownership rights of the property.
(6) The higher the area of authority, the higher the level of authority in the managerial hierarchy, the less will be the constraints and the jurisdiction will be wide and the lower the authority, the more will be on the authority. You will get bonded.
(7) Rights Assignment of Power – One of the features of rights is that they can also be surrendered as per the requirement. Increase in managerial efficiency by proper decentralization of powers it occurs
(8) Influencing subordinates is an important element of authority that in the manager Must have the ability to influence his subordinates. exercise of rights in the same condition will be effective when subordinates are also influenced by their rights but will exercise influence voluntarily should be accepted. Also, consult your subordinates from time to time. so as to influence them. authority or authority.
Types of Authority
Rights are of the following three types
(1) Line Authority – It is for all the top officers and their subordinates. exists between Its main function is to think and make decisions.
(2) Staff Authority It is the authority that exists in the organization to advise, assist and provide services to other departments.
(3) Functional authority, it is also called limited authority because its area is limited to making decisions and giving orders regarding a particular action. it happens. source of authority
Sources or Principles of Authority-
Important sources or principles of authority can be discussed as follows:
(1) Formal authority theory – According to this principle, official rights are obtained from an officer higher than himself; For example, the cashier gets the rights from the assistant treasurer, the assistant treasurer from the treasurer, the treasurer from the higher management.
(2) The principle of acceptance This principle is based on the acceptance of rights, that is, the source of rights is in acceptance. Therefore, according to this principle, the authority of a manager exists only as long as the employees subordinate to him accept the said authority. If the subordinate employees of the manager do not accept his authority, then such authority has no importance, that is, they become equal. Subordinate employees accept the rights of their superior only if, in their view, the benefit of accepting the rights is greater than the loss caused by denial of them.
(3) Capability Theory – A source of authority is also the personal quality of technical ability. There are also some people who, although they do not get any rights formally, but they are given special recognition due to their personal effective personality and technical ability. In this category there are learned economists, skilled engineers, etc., who establish dominance over the people by presenting simple solutions to the given problem. who establish dominance over the people by presenting simple solutions to the given problem.