Meaning and Definition of Delegation of Authority
In the present era, the nature of business has become very elaborate and complex and it is not possible for a single person to take care and control the processes of understanding. That is why the need for enforcing rights was felt. In Bhairpan, a person assigns his workload to another person. When an employee is entrusted with the responsibility of doing work, then he has to give necessary rights also, it is the same to transfer the rights. ‘Delegation’, ‘Assignment’ or Delegation have the same meaning. According to Theo Haimann, “Devolution of rights means to give the right to work within certain limits to those working under him.
F. Yes. According to Moore (F. G. Moore), “To entrust means to entrust other people and to give authority to do work.”
Since a principal employee has more work and cannot do all his work himself, therefore he delegates the right to do some of his work to others, this is called delegating authority. Literally devolution of authority means to assign some workload to other persons. In practical life we see that a successful manager intelligently distributes all the work of his department among all the employees working under him. When we entrust the responsibility of doing work to an employee, then we have to give necessary rights to him, this is called transfer of authority.
Types of Delegation of Authority-
The different types of assignment can be explained as follows: (1) General and fixed assignment – When a subordinate manager is given the authority to plan, organize, direct and control all managerial functions, then it is general assignment and when he is If rights are entrusted for some specific work, then it is called definite or specific encumbrance.
(2) Written and oral assignment – Under the written assignment, the equal rights are handed over by the higher authority in writing, whereas under the oral assignment, all the rights are given only in the oral form by the higher authority.
(3) Formal and Informal Delegation – Managerial workload in formal assignment within the prescribed limits. Under the informal assignment, the employees do not work according to the orders of the officers, but they work on their own motivation. private entities in both types Rights are transferred whereas in public institutions only formal authority is transferred.
(4) Other classification – Other types of assignment are as follows
(i) Administrative assignment – When only administrative functions are delegated then It is called ‘administrative charge’.
(ii) Functional loading The loading done on the basis of actions is called functional loading.
(iii) Geographical encumbrance – When the size of the trade extends to the country and abroad, then the transfer of rights is done on a regional basis.
(iv) Technical Delegation – When various types of technical works are entrusted, it is called technical delegation.
• Key Elements of Loading
(Principal Elements of Delegation of Authority) Delegation is an important part of the organization process. It is a means by which an officer shares his managerial work with his subordinate officers. Its main elements are as follows
(1) Assignment of work – Since a manager cannot complete all the tasks of an undertaking on his own, he should entrust some part of his work to his subordinates, so that the set objectives can be achieved. In this way, the manager of the organization sees that there are number of managerial functions which are to be completed and how many of them he will keep with himself and how much work he will delegate to his subordinates. For example, Agrawal Dal Mill has its head office in Raipur district and it has other four branches in Jhansi district, so in such a direction the Chief Manager will himself handle the work of the main branch of Jhansi city and will hand over the work of other branches to his subordinates.
(2) Giving rights In a business organization, the manager is successful in getting the work done only by the power of rights. Right is the key or cornerstone of the execution of managerial functions. The power obtained to guide the activities of the people working under the organization and to give orders to take work from them for achieving the objectives and goals of the organization is called authority. For example, the General Manager of Canara Bank has been appointed as the manager of the branch located at Railway Station Road, Durg. In such a situation, they will also have to delegate necessary powers (such as division of work among clerks, accepting deposits and paying interest thereon, giving loans, opening customers’ accounts etc.) for the operation of this branch.
(3) Determining the responsibility – It is not only the assignment of work to the employees under him, but it is also to see whether the work is being done properly or not. Whatever work load is assigned, it is called responsibility to complete it regularly. The responsibility is always with the higher authority and not the lower one. For example- Mr. Gupta is appointed by the operators as the general manager of Bilaspur-Raipur Transport Company and Mr. Gupta appoints four other departmental managers. In such a situation, the responsibility of subordinates will be on the departmental managers and the responsibility of the departmental managers will be no. on Gupta
Principles of Delegation of Authority
(1) To transfer rights keeping in view the neglected consequences, for the kind of work we expect from a subordinate employee or officer, to the same extent those rights should be transferred or granted.
(2) Transfer of rights according to responsibilities If the transfer is not done according to responsibilities, then subordinate employees or officers have to face many difficulties. Therefore, according to the responsibility, the subordinate assistant should transfer the rights. (3) Only the rights are transferred, not the responsibility, any chief manager or officer of the organization can exercise the rights with the help of other subordinate employees or assistants to complete his work.
could. may transfer some of his rights to act to others, but the rights
The transfer does not reduce his responsibility, his responsibility remains as it is.
Is. Thus it can be said that only rights are transferred, not responsibilities.
(4) Principle of unity of command A subordinate employee should get orders from only one higher officer, otherwise he will get confused that he has got orders from many officers and whose orders he should obey and whose orders should not. There should never be dual subordination. A subordinate employee should be responsible only to a higher authority for a particular task.
Factors determining the extent of levy or transfer of rights The major factors determining the extent of levy are the following:
1. Size of the organization – The size of the organization or whether the undertaking is big or small, it has an effect on the extent of the burden. Generally we see that in big undertakings all the work cannot be done by the same person, hence some work has to be handed over to others. 2. Cost of decisions The cost of decisions also has an effect on the extent of the assignment. if
If the decisions are of high cost, then the higher authority will do the work himself. 3. Uniformity of Policies- Many times there has to be uniformity in the policies of the organization and in such a situation the burden of rights is reduced. This fact is also a component of boundary determination. may be considered.
4. Centralization of Rights- If too much emphasis is placed on the centralization of rights in an organization from the beginning, then later there are many difficulties in the assignment of rights. 5. Achievement of subordinates – If the subordinate managers are available in sufficient quantity and there is no obstacle in the way of execution. On the contrary, if the subordinates are not available, then the assignment cannot be done.
6. Desire related to independence of subordinates – If the desire for independence among the subordinate employees or managers of an enterprise is more, then the amount of imposition of rights will also have to be kept more.
7. Approach of top managers – If the top managers of the organization are to follow modern management, then they will give more encouragement to the delegation of authority. If the manager is narrow minded, he would like to keep all the rights with himself.
8. Control Methods – If there is good and effective control in the organization, then there will be more incentive to delegate the rights. 9. Decentralized work execution – if due to technical reasons decentralization of functions of the enterprise techniques being adopted If it becomes necessary to do so, the delegation of rights will automatically be encouraged.
10. Development of business- Businesses which develop at a fast pace, their rights increase in them.